2021-09-25 13:33:42 來源:參考消息網 責任編輯:張威威

參考消息網9月25日報道

How Women Conquered College and the Future

女性如何征服大學和未來

Samuel Goldman 塞繆爾·戈德曼

Judging by movies and TV series like the The Chair, college is dominated by strutting jocks among the students and tweedy graybeards on the faculty.

But it's been a long time since that was true. Despite its anachronistic reputation, the college population is increasingly female. Surveying recent data, The Wall Street Journal finds that women made up nearly 60 percent of enrollment in the 2020-21 academic year. Women are not just more likely to attend college, but also more likely to graduate. According to the report, about two thirds of women who enroll at a four-year institution graduate within six years, compared with 59 percent of men.

The burgeoning gender gap is an open secret in higher education. With none of the fanfare that accompanies their pursuit of racial diversity, many institutions give an admissions advantage to men. One reason is that administrators fear women are also less likely to enroll when the male student population drops below 40 percent.

Women's success in admissions isn't only a dilemma for colleges trying to balance their books. Because elite institutions hire almost exclusively college graduates, campuses are the point of departure for female dominance of publishing, the culture industry,and areas of the corporate world — particularly the massive human resources industry.

Skeptics might observe that the upper tiers of these fields remain dominated by men. That's right, but largely a generation effect. Today's non-profit trustees, tenured professors, and executive editors began their careers decades ago, when college student bodies were more equally divided (and in some cases,exclusively male). It would be surprising if the gender ratio in upper management remained the same in another 20 years.

There's also a meritocratic case for the female future. As The Wall Street Journal notes, the proximate reasons women outnumber men in higher education are that they apply in larger numbers, are more attentive to the admissions process and other administrative hurdles, get better grades, and lead more orderly lives.

Declining educational attainment for men means lower wages and declining marriage rates, which promote family instability. In the long run, un- or under-employed men and unstable households are correlated with violent crime. It's not a straight causal arrow, but the dwindling share of men in higher education and the jobs it supplies could be downright dangerous.

Although their student populations have changed, American higher education continues to be characterized by a streak of elite moralism that's survived in mutated form since its origins in religious instruction. Academic and administrative hurdles can be reduced, but universities need to take seriously men's perception that universities don't want them.

It's not all tweed and Ivy. But some of the cliches about campus life are true.

從《英文系主任》等影視作品來看,在大學里,學生大多是趾高氣昂的運動健將,教職員工大多是穿粗花呢西服的老教授。

參考消息網9月25日報道

How Women Conquered College and the Future

女性如何征服大學和未來

Samuel Goldman 塞繆爾·戈德曼

Judging by movies and TV series like the The Chair, college is dominated by strutting jocks among the students and tweedy graybeards on the faculty.

But it's been a long time since that was true. Despite its anachronistic reputation, the college population is increasingly female. Surveying recent data, The Wall Street Journal finds that women made up nearly 60 percent of enrollment in the 2020-21 academic year. Women are not just more likely to attend college, but also more likely to graduate. According to the report, about two thirds of women who enroll at a four-year institution graduate within six years, compared with 59 percent of men.

The burgeoning gender gap is an open secret in higher education. With none of the fanfare that accompanies their pursuit of racial diversity, many institutions give an admissions advantage to men. One reason is that administrators fear women are also less likely to enroll when the male student population drops below 40 percent.

Women's success in admissions isn't only a dilemma for colleges trying to balance their books. Because elite institutions hire almost exclusively college graduates, campuses are the point of departure for female dominance of publishing, the culture industry,and areas of the corporate world — particularly the massive human resources industry.

Skeptics might observe that the upper tiers of these fields remain dominated by men. That's right, but largely a generation effect. Today's non-profit trustees, tenured professors, and executive editors began their careers decades ago, when college student bodies were more equally divided (and in some cases,exclusively male). It would be surprising if the gender ratio in upper management remained the same in another 20 years.

There's also a meritocratic case for the female future. As The Wall Street Journal notes, the proximate reasons women outnumber men in higher education are that they apply in larger numbers, are more attentive to the admissions process and other administrative hurdles, get better grades, and lead more orderly lives.

Declining educational attainment for men means lower wages and declining marriage rates, which promote family instability. In the long run, un- or under-employed men and unstable households are correlated with violent crime. It's not a straight causal arrow, but the dwindling share of men in higher education and the jobs it supplies could be downright dangerous.

Although their student populations have changed, American higher education continues to be characterized by a streak of elite moralism that's survived in mutated form since its origins in religious instruction. Academic and administrative hurdles can be reduced, but universities need to take seriously men's perception that universities don't want them.

It's not all tweed and Ivy. But some of the cliches about campus life are true.

從《英文系主任》等影視作品來看,在大學里,學生大多是趾高氣昂的運動健將,教職員工大多是穿粗花呢西服的老教授。

但現實早已不是這樣。雖然頂著時代錯誤的名聲,但大學的女性比例越來越高?!度A爾街日報》查閱最近的數據發現,女性約占2020至2021學年大學錄取學生總數的60%。女性不僅上大學的比例更高,畢業的比例也更高。根據這篇報道,約2/3進入四年制大學的女性在六年內畢業,而男性的這個比例僅為59%。

這種急劇擴大的性別差異成為高等教育公開的秘密。許多高校在招生時給予男性優待,但不像追求種族多元化時那樣大張旗鼓。給予男性優待的一個原因是,高校管理者擔心,當男生的比例降至40%以下時,女性的入學人數也將下降。

女性在大學錄取方面的勝出不僅是尋求男女比例平衡的高校的兩難處境。由于精英機構幾乎只聘用大學畢業生,大學校園就成為女性主導出版業、文化產業和企業界——尤其是龐大的人力資源領域——的起點。

懷疑論者也許會說,這些領域的中高層仍是男性的天下。這樣說沒錯,但它主要是代際效應。今天的非營利受托人、終身教授和總編的職業生涯都始于幾十年前,當時高校學生的性別比例更加均衡(在某些情況下,只有男性)。如果再過20年中高管理層的性別比例仍沒有變化,那就奇怪了。

女性的這種未來還有英才教育因素。正如《華爾街日報》所指出的,高等教育中女性多于男性的最直接原因是,女性申請入學人數更多,更關注申請流程和其他行政障礙,成績更好,生活也更有條理。

男性受教育程度下降意味著收入下降和結婚率下降,而這將加劇家庭的不穩定。長期來看,失業或未充分就業的男性和不穩定的家庭與暴力犯罪有關。雖然不是直接因果關系,但在高等教育及其所提供的崗位中男性比例下降的確十分危險。

盡管學生的性別比例發生了變化,但美國高等教育仍以一系列精英道德主義為特點,它起源于宗教教導,通過改變形態延續至今。教務和行政上的障礙可以減少,但大學需要嚴肅對待男性認為大學不想招收他們的想法。

粗花呢和常春藤并不是大學的全部。但有些關于大學生活的陳詞濫調千真萬確。(劉白云譯自9月8日《一周》周刊網站)

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